14/05/2016

Refugiés: les passeurs à travers l'histoire

REFUGIES : LES PASSEURS A TRAVERS L'HISTOIRE - DES HEROS AUX CRIMINELS
 
Les passeurs des Juifs fuyant le nazisme sont considérés comme des héros, 
Les passeurs des réfugiés et migrants contemporains n’ont pas la même image…
 
Miriam Cosic, Australienne, dont le père Serbe avait trouvé refuge en Australie, témoigne de l’évolution des mentalités, dans un article du "Guardian" du 14 mai 2016, en évoquant aussi au passage les « boat people » vietnamiens… sous le titre "When people smugglers were seen as heroes, and we welcomed the dispossessed" Quand les passeurs étaient considérés comme des héros et quand nous accueillons les démunis...
 
Et de citer Ben Shephard, dans son livre « The Long Road Home: the aftermath of the Second World War »  (2011) qui interpelle notre culture moderne, où le mal est sexy, la bonté ennuyeuse, la charité organisée manque totalement d’intérêt, comment rendre intéressant l’altruisme institutionnalisé ?
 
“How, in our modern culture – where evil is sexy, goodness is dull, and organised goodness is dullest of all – can we find a way to make organised altruism interesting?” 
 
Shepard rappelle que les Alliés, à la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, s’attendaient à une catastrophe sanitaire analogue à celle de la grippe espagnole qui avait marqué la fin de la Première Guerre mondiale. En réalité, la crise à gérer n’a pas été médicale mais migratoire : ce sont des millions de réfugiés qui ont dû être accueillis et intégrés. 
 
Pourrions-nous en tirer quelques enseignements pour gérer les crises migratoires actuelles et à venir ?
 
Michel Veuthey
 
 
Voici un résumé de l’ouvrage de Ben  Shephard (Knopf, 2011, 490 p., disponible en format numérique sur Kindle):
 
At the end of World War II, long before an Allied victory was assured and before the scope of the atrocities orchestrated by Hitler would come into focus or even assume the name of the Holocaust, Allied forces had begun to prepare for its aftermath. Taking cues from the end of the First World War, planners had begun the futile task of preparing themselves for a civilian health crisis that, due in large part to advances in medical science, would never come. The problem that emerged was not widespread disease among Europe’s population, as anticipated, but massive displacement among those who had been uprooted from home and country during the war. 

Displaced Persons, as the refugees would come to be known, were not comprised entirely of Jews. Millions of Latvians, Poles, Ukrainians, and Yugoslavs, in addition to several hundred thousand Germans, were situated in a limbo long overlooked by historians. While many were speedily repatriated, millions of refugees refused to return to countries that were forever changed by the war—a crisis that would take years to resolve and would become the defining legacy of World War II. Indeed many of the postwar questions that haunted the Allied planners still confront us today: How can humanitarian aid be made to work? What levels of immigration can our societies absorb? How can an occupying power restore prosperity to a defeated enemy?

Including new documentation in the form of journals, oral histories, and essays by actual DPs unearthed during his research for this illuminating and radical reassessment of history, Ben Shephard brings to light the extraordinary stories and myriad versions of the war experienced by the refugees and the new United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration that would undertake the responsibility of binding the wounds of an entire continent. Groundbreaking and remarkably relevant to conflicts that continue to plague peacekeeping efforts, The Long Road Home tells the epic story of how millions redefined the notion of home amid painstaking recovery.
 

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