29/08/2014

Protection du personnel humanitaire : débat et résolution au Conseil de Sécurité

Le Conseil de sécurité devrait adopter aujourd’hui vendredi 29 août une résolution sur la protection du personnel humanitaire, comme suite à une séance le 19 août à laquelle avaient participé Jan Eliasson, Peter Maurer et le fondateur d’une ONG afghane…

Tomorrow (29 August), the Security Council is expected to adopt a resolution on the protection of humanitarian personnel. The resolution is a follow-up to the 19 August open briefing with Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson, ICRC President Peter Maurer and Masood Karokhail, director and co-founder of the Afghan non-governmental organisation, The Liaison Office, to mark World Humanitarian Day. During this meeting, the UK announced that it would propose a new draft resolution on how the Council can better protect humanitarian workers. At press time the negotiated text was under silence until 9 a.m. tomorrow morning (29 August). It appears that Russia asked for an extension of the initial silence procedure deadline from 11 am today to 9 am tomorrow morning to have more time to consult with capital, but the expectation at press time was that silence would not be broken and that an adoption was still possible at some point tomorrow.

http://www.whatsinblue.org/2014/09/briefing-on-humanitarian-access-in-syria-1.php#

23/08/2014

Crises et conflits : urgence de passer de la réaction à la prévention

Le Conseil de sécurité a adopté, jeudi 21 août 2014, une résolution demandant aux Etats Membres et aux organes des Nations Unies de mettre l'accent sur la prévention des conflits: le Conseil devrait "servir de détecteur de fumée et non pas uniquement d'extincteur".  C'est la première résolution sur la prévention adoptée par le Conseil depuis 2001.

Sous la présidence du représentant du Royaume-Uni, 57 délégations, dont la Suisse, se sont exprimées dans ce débat. Le représentant canadien a souligné le sentiment d'échec face aux conflits qui font rage en Syrie, à Gaza, en Iraq, au Soudan du Sud, en République Centrafricaine, et en Ukraine, pour ne citer que ceux-là.

Dans la résolution, les Membres du Conseil se disent déterminés à employer plus fréquemment et plus efficacement les mécanismes prévus au Chapitre VI de la Charte des Nations Unies : négociation, enquête, médiation, conciliation, arbitrage, règlement judiciaire et recours aux organisations régionales et sous-régionales, ainsi qu'aux bons offices du Secrétaire général.

Les Bureaux régionaux des Nations Unies, les Missions politiques spéciales, les Opérations de maintien de la paix ainsi que la Commission de consolidation de la paix sont mentionnés et feront aussi l'objet du Rapport que le Secrétaire général devra présenter à fin août 2015 en mettant l'accent sur les cinq points suivants :

1. Assurer une présence précoce,

2. Améliorer les compétences,

3. Renforcer les partenariats,

4. Apprendre des erreurs collectives,

5. Reconnaître le caractère primordial d'établir un nouvel esprit de collaboration, de coopération et d'action au sein des Nations Unies, à commencer par le Conseil de sécurité.

Mme Navi Pillay, Haut-Commissaire des Nations Unies aux Droits de l'Homme, a mis l’accent sur le plan d’action « Les droits avant tout » ("Rights Up Front") qui permet au Secrétaire général d’alerter sur les crises potentielles, y compris les situations qui ne sont pas formellement à l’ordre du jour du Conseil de sécurité. Elle a aussi relevé que les crises et conflits sont souvent l'aboutissement de décennies de violations des Droits de l'Homme.

Le texte anglais de la résolution et de la déclaration de Madame Pillay sont jointes ci-dessous

Michel Veuthey

 


SECURITY COUNCIL, ADOPTING RESOLUTION 2171 (2014), PLEDGES BETTER USE OF SYSTEM-WIDE APPROACH TO CONFLICT PREVENTION

The full text of resolution 2171 (2014), adopted on the 21st of August, reads as follows:

“The Security Council,

“Recalling all its previous resolutions and statements of its President on prevention of armed conflict, preventive diplomacy, mediation and peaceful settlement of disputes, in particular resolutions 1366 (2001) and 1625 (2005), and the statements of its President of 22 February 1995 (S/PRST/1995/9), 30 November 1999 (S/PRST/1999/34), 20 July 2000 (S/PRST/2000/25), 13 May 2003 (S/PRST/2003/5), 20 September 2005 (S/PRST/2005/42), 21 April 2009 (S/PRST/2009/8), 22 September 2011 (S/PRST/2011/18), 15 April 2013 (S/PRST/2013/4),

“Recalling the determination of the peoples of the United Nations, to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights,

“Recalling all Purposes and Principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations,

“Recalling the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security and acting in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the Charter of the United Nations,

“Reaffirming the Security Council’s continuing commitment to addressing the prevention of armed conflicts in all regions of the world,

“Expressing its determination to enhance the effectiveness of the United Nations in preventing and ending armed conflicts, their escalation, spread when they occur, and their resurgence once they end,

“Recalling that the prevention of conflict remains a primary responsibility of States, and further recalling their primary responsibility to protect civilians and to respect and ensure the human rights of all individuals within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction, as provided for by relevant international law, and further, reaffirming the responsibility of each individual State to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity,

“Acknowledging the role that civil society can play in contributing to conflict prevention,

“Reiterating the need for a comprehensive approach to conflict prevention and sustainable peace, which comprises operational and structural measures for the prevention of armed conflict and addresses its root causes, including through strengthening the rule of law at international and national levels and promoting sustained economic growth, poverty eradication, social development, sustainable development, national reconciliation, good governance, democracy, gender equality and respect for, and protection of, human rights,

“Calling attention to the importance of early awareness and consideration of situations which may deteriorate into armed conflicts, and emphasizing that the United Nations, including the Security Council, should heed early warning indications of potential conflict and ensure prompt and effective action to prevent, contain or end conflicts, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,

“Underlining the overriding moral, political and humanitarian imperatives, as well as the economic advantages of preventing the outbreak, continuation, escalation or relapse into conflict,

“Deeply concerned by the high human cost and suffering caused by armed conflicts, as well as the material and economic costs to the countries directly affected, the wider region and international community, including through the inclusive rebuilding of states and societies in the aftermath of armed conflict, and recognizing that peace, security and development are mutually reinforcing, including in the prevention of armed conflict,

“Affirming that a comprehensive conflict prevention strategy should include, inter alia, early warning, preventive diplomacy, mediation, preventive deployment, peacekeeping, practical disarmament and other measures to contribute to combating the proliferation and illicit trade of arms, accountability measures, as well as inclusive post-conflict peacebuilding, and recognizing that these components are interdependent, complementary and non-sequential,

“Emphasizing the critical role of peacebuilding and the Peacebuilding Commission in support of countries emerging from conflict, in particular through the mobilization of sustained international support to critical national capacity needs,

“Stressing the essential role of the Secretary-General in the prevention of armed conflict, including through early warning,

“Stressing also the importance of the Secretary-General’s efforts to enhance his role, in accordance with Article 99 of the Charter of the United Nations,

“Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on “Preventive Diplomacy: Delivering Results” (S/2011/552) and the recommendations contained therein on steps to maximize the prospects of success in United Nations preventive diplomacy efforts,

“Noting also that terrorism is an important element in an increasing number of conflict situations and that countering incitement to terrorism, motivated by extremism and intolerance, and addressing the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, can complement conflict prevention efforts,

“Stressing the importance of accountability in preventing future conflicts, avoiding the recurrence of serious violations of international law, including international humanitarian law and human rights law, and enabling sustainable peace, justice, truth and reconciliation, and emphasizing in this context the responsibility of States to comply with their relevant obligations to end impunity and, to that end, to thoroughly investigate and prosecute persons responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, or other serious violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law,

“Stressing that the fight against impunity and to ensure accountability for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and other egregious crimes has been strengthened through the work on and prosecution of these crimes in the international criminal justice system, ad hoc and mixed tribunals, as well as specialized chambers in national tribunals; and recognising in this regard the contribution of the International Criminal Court, in accordance with the principle of complementarity to national criminal jurisdictions as set out in the Rome Statute, towards holding accountable those responsible for such crimes; and reiterating its call on the importance of State cooperation with these courts and tribunals in accordance with the States’ respective obligations,

“Reaffirming the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding, and reiterating its call to increase the equal, full and meaningful, participation, representation and involvement of women in conflict prevention and mediation efforts in a mutually reinforcing manner in line with resolutions 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 1960 (2010), 2106 (2013) and 2122 (2013),

“1. Expresses its determination to pursue the objective of prevention of armed conflict as an integral part of its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security;

“2. Calls upon all States to intensify efforts to secure a world free of the scourge of war and conflict;

“3. Stresses that the prevention of conflicts remains a primary responsibility of States and actions undertaken within the framework of conflict prevention by the United Nations should support and complement, as appropriate, the conflict prevention roles of national Governments;

“4. Reaffirms the duty of all States to settle their international disputes by peaceful means, inter alia through negotiation, enquiry, good offices, mediation, conciliation, arbitration and judicial settlement, or other peaceful means of their own choice;

“5. Recalls Chapter VI, in particular Articles 33 and 34 of the Charter of the United Nations, and reaffirms its commitment to the settlement of disputes by peaceful means and the promotion of necessary preventive action in response to disputes or situations, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security;

“6. Recognizes that some of the tools in Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations, which can be used for conflict prevention, have not been fully utilized, including negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement and resort to regional and subregional organizations and arrangements, as well as the good offices of the Secretary-General, and stresses its determination to make and call for the greater and more effective use of such tools;

“7. Acknowledges the important role the following can play in contributing to the prevention of the outbreak, escalation, continuation and recurrence of conflict;

– United Nations regional offices;
– Special Political Missions;
– peacekeeping operations;
– the Peacebuilding Commission

“as well as regional and subregional organizations and arrangements;

“8. Acknowledges also that sanctions imposed under relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations are an important tool in the maintenance and restoration of international peace and security and can contribute to create conditions conducive to the peaceful resolution of situations that threaten or breach international peace and security, and support conflict prevention;

“9. Encourages the Secretary-General to continue enhancing the use of his good offices, dispatching Representatives, Special Envoys and mediators, to help to facilitate durable, inclusive and comprehensive settlements and further encourages the Secretary-General to continue his early engagement in the prevention of potential conflicts;

“10. Encourages field-based Special Political Missions and Peacekeeping Operations to enhance their assessment and analysis capabilities to prevent relapse into conflict within their existing mandates;

“11. Recognizes that mediation is an important means for the pacific settlement of disputes, including wherever possible preventively and before disputes evolve into violence and appreciates the efforts of the Secretary-General to continue to strengthen United Nations mediation support capacities, including the Mediation Support Unit as a provider of mediation support to the United Nations system, in accordance with agreed mandates;

“12. Expresses its willingness to give prompt consideration to early warning cases brought to its attention by the Secretary-General, including to the dispatch, in appropriate circumstances, of preventive political missions and encourages the Secretary-General to bring to its attention any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security, in accordance with Article 99 of the Charter of the United Nations;

“13. Acknowledges that serious abuses and violations of international human rights or humanitarian law, including sexual and gender-based violence, can be an early indication of a descent into conflict or escalation of conflict, as well as a consequence thereof; and calls on States which have not already done so to consider ratifying the instruments of international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law, and to take appropriate steps to implement these instruments domestically, which could contribute to timely prevention of conflicts;

“14. Encourages the Secretary-General to continue to refer to the Council information and analyses which he believes could contribute to the prevention of armed conflict, including on cases of serious violations of international law, including international humanitarian law and human rights law, and on potential conflict situations arising, inter alia, from ethnic, religious and territorial disputes, poverty and lack of development;

“15. Expresses its commitment to take early and effective action to prevent armed conflict and to that end to employ all appropriate means at its disposal, in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations;

“16. Recalls the important role of the Secretary-General’s Special Advisers on the Prevention of Genocide and the Responsibility to Protect, whose functions include acting as an early warning mechanism to prevent potential situations that could result in genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and ethnic cleansing, as well as the important role the Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict and the Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict can play in contributing to conflict prevention; calls upon States to recommit to prevent and fight against genocide, and other serious crimes under international law, and reaffirms paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit outcome document (A/60/L.1) on the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity;

“17. Recognizes the important role the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Office of the Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide can play in conflict prevention, and also recognizes the role their briefings on human rights violations and hate speech play in contributing to early awareness of potential conflict;

“18. Emphasizes the important role that women and civil society, including women’s organizations and formal and informal community leaders, can play in exerting influence over parties to armed conflict; reiterates the continuing need to increase success in preventing conflict by increasing the participation of women at all stages of mediation and post-conflict resolution and by increasing the consideration of gender-related issues in all discussions pertinent to conflict prevention;

“19. Reiterates its request to the Secretary-General and his Special Envoys and Special Representatives to United Nations missions, as part of their regular briefings, to update the Council on progress in inviting women to participate, including through consultations with civil society, including women’s organizations, in discussions pertinent to the prevention and resolution of conflict, the maintenance of peace and security and post-conflict peacebuilding;

“20. Expresses its commitment to consider and use the tools of the United Nations system to ensure that early warning of potential conflicts translates into early, concrete preventive action, including towards the goal of protecting civilians, by or in coordination with the most appropriate United Nations or regional actor; in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations;

“21. Encourages the peaceful settlement of local disputes through regional arrangements in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter, acknowledges the efforts undertaken to strengthen operational and institutional cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations aimed at conflict prevention, and in this regard, reiterates the need to continue strengthening strategic dialogue, partnerships, and more regular exchanges of views and information at the working level, with the aim of building national and regional capacities in relation to preventive diplomacy;

“22. Calls for enhanced cooperation and capacity building with regional and subregional organizations and arrangements to help to prevent armed conflicts, their spread and impact, including through cooperation in early warning mechanisms, as well as to help facilitate preventive action; consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations;

“23. Reiterates its support for the work of the Peacebuilding Commission and expresses its continued willingness to make use of the advisory, advocacy and resource mobilization roles of the Peacebuilding Commission in peacebuilding activities;

“24. Reaffirms its willingness to strengthen its relationship with civil society, including, as appropriate, through, inter alia, meetings in an informal and flexible manner with civil society, to exchange analyses and perspectives on the issue of the prevention of armed conflict;

“25. Requests the Secretary-General to submit a report to the Council on actions taken by him to promote and strengthen conflict prevention tools within the United Nations system, including through co-operation with regional and subregional organizations, by 31 August 2015;

“26. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.”


Security Council Open Debate on Maintenance of International Peace and Security

Mr. President
Distinguished members of the Council,

Thank you for this opportunity to interact with the Security Council a few days before the end of my term.

Conflict prevention is complex, but it can be achieved. In many States, democratic institutions de-escalate disputes long before they reach boiling point. Even after violence has broken out, international actors can help broker and enforce peace. In my own country, South Africa, the United Nations helped end 300 years of injustice when it declared apartheid a crime against humanity and imposed sanctions; and democratic institutions were installed to resolve future disputes.

In Nepal, following almost a decade of armed conflict, my Office's efforts included, deployment of both short- and long-term strategies. They included support for Constituent Assembly elections; and capacity-building for police, civil society, and important government initiatives such as addressing caste based discrimination.

Following the 2007 massacres in Guinea – a country at high risk of violence and civil war – OHCHR's work demonstrated the criticality of early engagement, notably in building civil society’s capacity to investigate and document human rights violations. There was coherent action by national, regional and international actors; and this Council established a Commission of Inquiry. Today OHCHR’s country office continues to support stronger institutions, transitional justice and reconciliation.

None of these crises erupted without warning. They built up over years – and sometimes decades – of human rights grievances: deficient or corrupt governance and judicial institutions; discrimination and exclusion; inequities in development; exploitation and denial of economic and social rights; and repression of civil society and public freedoms.

The Council’s interest in human rights has increased markedly during my tenure. But despite repeated briefings regarding escalating violations in multiple crises – by OHCHR and other human rights mechanisms – there has not always been a firm and principled decision by Members to put an end to crises. Short-term geopolitical considerations and national interest, narrowly defined, have repeatedly taken precedence over intolerable human suffering and grave breaches of – and long-term threats to – international peace and security. I firmly believe that greater responsiveness by this Council would have saved hundreds of thousands of lives.

Recommendations

State sovereignty is often invoked to deflect UN action to prevent serious human rights violations. But as I have often said to the representatives of Governments, "You made the law; now you must observe it". Sovereign states established the UN, and built the international human rights framework, precisely because they knew that human rights violations cause conflict and undermine sovereignty. Early UN action to address human rights protects States, by warding off the threat of devastating violence.

This Council can take a number of innovative approaches to prevent threats to international peace and security. Within Rights Up Front, the Secretary-General can be even more proactive in alerting to potential crises, including situations that are not formally on the Council’s agenda. To further strengthen early warning, the Council could also ask for more regular and comprehensive human rights reporting by protection actors; for example my successor as the High Commissioner could provide an informal monthly briefing.

The work done by Commissions of Inquiry to establish clarity, and prepare accountability, should be followed by implementation by this Council of many more of their recommendations for follow-up. And I trust that in the future they too will benefit from regular, official channels of communications to this Council.

Finally, the Council could adopt a standing consensus on a menu of possible new responses to such alerts violations, such as rapid, flexible and resource-efficient human rights monitoring missions, limited in time and scope. Another innovative option could build on the new Arms Trade Treaty, which requires arms exporters and importers to confirm that weapons will not be used to commit violations. States Parties could agree that where there are concerns about human rights in States that purchase arms, one condition of sale would be that they accept a small human rights monitoring team, with deployment funded by the Treaty's Trust Fund.

Thank you. It has been an honour to serve the United Nations.

- See more at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=14958&LangID=E#sthash.nMs2ZqQ5.dpuf

22/08/2014

200.000 morts en Syrie...

Le Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les Droits de l'Homme vient de publier un rapport: compilant quatre sources, il affirme que près de 200.000 personnes auraient été tuées depuis le début du conflit en Syrie en mars 2011. Ce serait même une estimation inférieure à la réalité, dit la Haut Commissaire, Madame Navi Pillay...
 
Le document (en anglais) est disponible en ligne :
 
http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/SY/HRDAGUpdatedReportAug2014.pdf?
 
Michel Veuthey

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) has released a report: at least 191,369 people have been killed since the start of Syria's conflict. Data from four groups, including human rights organizations, and the Syrian Government was used to determine the estimate, which was more than double the number of deaths documented in 2013. Though, U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay said the count is likely an underestimate. Data from four groups, including human rights organizations, and the Syrian government was used to determine the estimate, which was more than double the number of deaths documented in 2013. Though, U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay said the count is likely an underestimate. 

 

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/SY/HRDAGUpdatedReportAug2014.pdf?

16/08/2014

Extrémistes en Irak et en Syrie : le Conseil de sécurité adopte des sanctions

La "communauté internationale" se ressaisit-elle ? Vendredi 15 août, le Conseil de sécurité a adopté à l'unanimité une résolution 2170 (2014) inscrivant six extrémistes sur sa liste de sanctions. A relever que cette résolution se réclame du Chapitre VII de la Charte, prévoyant la possibilité de l'usage de la force armée.


Le Conseil dénonce les crimes commis par ces mouvements contre les civils et les réfugiés, demande la poursuite de ces violations des Droits de l'homme et du droit international humanitaire, exige la libération des otages,  appelle en outre les Etats et autres "entités" (en français, "services de renseignements") à cesser leur appui financier et militaire à ces mouvements, à stopper le financement, le recrutement de volontaires étrangers, la propagande sur Internet. Le Conseil fera rapport dans les trois mois sur l'évolution de la situation, les sources d'armement, de financement et de recrutement et fera des propositions sur d'autres mesures à prendre.

Le texte original anglais de la résolution est joint ci-dessous.


Michel Veuthey

 

The text of resolution 2170 (2014) reads as follows:

 

The Security Council,

 

Reaffirming its resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001), 1618 (2005), 1624 (2005), 2083 (2012), 2129 (2013), 2133 (2014), 2161 (2014) and its relevant Presidential Statements,

 

Reaffirming the independence, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of the Republic of Iraq and Syrian Arab Republic, and reaffirming further the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,

 

Reaffirming that terrorism in all forms and manifestations constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security and that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever and by whomsoever committed,

 

Expressing its gravest concern that territory in parts of Iraq and Syria is under the control of Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and Al Nusrah Front (ANF) and about the negative impact of their presence, violent extremist ideology and actions on stability in Iraq, Syria and the region, including the devastating humanitarian impact on the civilian populations which has led to the displacement of millions of people, and about their acts of violence that foment sectarian tensions,

 

Reiterating its condemnation of ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida for ongoing and multiple criminal terrorist acts aimed at causing the deaths of civilians and other victims, destruction of property and of cultural and religious sites, and greatly undermining stability, and recalling that the asset freeze, travel ban and arms embargo requirements in paragraph 1 of resolution 2161 (2014) apply to ISIL, ANF, and all other individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities associated with Al-Qaida,

 

Reaffirming that terrorism, including the actions of ISIL, cannot and should not be associated with any religion, nationality, or civilization,

 

Stressing that terrorism can only be defeated by a sustained and comprehensive approach involving the active participation and collaboration of all States, and international and regional organizations to impede, impair, isolate and incapacitate the terrorist threat,

 

Reaffirming that Member States must ensure that any measures taken to combat terrorism, including while implementing this resolution, comply with all their obligations under international law, in particular international human rights, refugee and international humanitarian law, and underscoring that effective counter-terrorism measures and respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law are complementary and mutually reinforcing, and are an essential part of a successful counter-terrorism effort, and notes the importance of respect for the rule of law so as to effectively prevent and combat terrorism,

 

Reaffirming that those who have committed or are otherwise responsible for violations of international humanitarian law or violations or abuses of human rights in Iraq and Syria, including persecution of individuals on the basis of their religion or belief, or on political grounds, must be held accountable,

 

Gravely concerned by the financing of, and financial and other resources obtained by, ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities associated with Al-Qaida, and underscoring that these resources will support their future terrorist activities,

 

Strongly condemning incidents of kidnapping and hostage-taking committed by ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida for any purpose, including with the aim of raising funds or gaining political concessions, expressing its determination to prevent kidnapping and hostage-taking committed by terrorist groups and to secure the safe release of hostages without ransom payments or political concessions, in accordance with applicable international law, calling upon all Member States to prevent terrorists from benefiting directly or indirectly from ransom payments or from political concessions and to secure the safe release of hostages, and reaffirming the need for all Member States to cooperate closely during incidents of kidnapping and hostage-taking committed by terrorist groups,

 

Expressing concern at the flow of foreign terrorist fighters to ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida, and the scale of this phenomenon,

 

Expressing concern at the increased use, in a globalized society, by terrorists and their supporters of new information and communication technologies, in particular the Internet, for the purposes of recruitment and incitement to commit terrorist acts, as well as for the financing, planning and preparation of their activities, and underlining the need for Member States to act cooperatively to prevent terrorists from exploiting technology, communications and resources to incite support for terrorist acts, while respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms and in compliance with other obligations under international law,

 

Condemning in the strongest terms the incitement of terrorist acts and repudiating attempts at the justification or glorification (apologie) of terrorist acts that may incite further terrorist acts,

 

Underlining the primary responsibility of Member States to protect civilian population on their territories, in accordance with their obligations under international law,

 

Urging all parties to protect the civilian population, in particular women and children, affected by the violent activities of ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida, especially against any form of sexual violence,

 

Reaffirming the need to combat by all means, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and international law, including applicable international human rights, refugee and humanitarian law, threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, stressing in this regard the important role the United Nations plays in leading and coordinating this effort,

 

Noting with concern the continued threat posed to international peace and security by ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida, and reaffirming its resolve to address all aspects of that threat,

 

Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

 

“1.   Deplores and condemns in the strongest terms the terrorist acts of ISIL and its violent extremist ideology, and its continued gross, systematic and widespread abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law;

 

“2.   Strongly condemns the indiscriminate killing and deliberate targeting of civilians, numerous atrocities, mass executions and extrajudicial killings, including of soldiers, persecution of individuals and entire communities on the basis of their religion or belief, kidnapping of civilians, forced displacement of members of minority groups, killing and maiming of children, recruitment and use of children, rape and other forms of sexual violence, arbitrary detention, attacks on schools and hospitals, destruction of cultural and religious sites and obstructing the exercise of economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to education, especially in the Syrian governorates of Ar-RaqqahDeir ez-Zor, Aleppo and Idlib, in northern Iraq, especially in TamimSalaheddine and Niniveh Provinces;

 

“3.   Recalls that widespread or systematic attacks directed against any civilian populations because of their ethnic or political background, religion or belief may constitute a crime against humanity, emphasizes the need to ensure that ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida are held accountable for abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, urges all parties to prevent such violations and abuses;

 

“4.   Demands that ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida cease all violence and terrorist acts, and disarm and disband with immediate effect;

 

“5.   Urges all States, in accordance with their obligations under resolution 1373 (2001), to cooperate in efforts to find and bring to justice individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida including ISIL and ANF who perpetrate, organize and sponsor terrorist acts and in this regard underlines the importance of regional cooperation;

 

“6.   Reiterates its call upon all States to take all measures as may be necessary and appropriate and in accordance with their obligations under international law to counter incitement of terrorist acts motivated by extremism and intolerance perpetrated by individuals or entities associated with ISIL, ANF and Al-Qaida and to prevent the subversion of educational, cultural, and religious institutions by terrorists and their supporters;

 

Foreign Terrorist Fighters

 

“7.   Condemns the recruitment by ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida of foreign terrorist fighters, whose presence is exacerbating conflict and contributing to violent radicalization, demands that all foreign terrorist fighters associated with ISIL and other terrorist groups withdraw immediately, and expresses its readiness to consider listing those recruiting for or participating in the activities of ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida under the Al-Qaida sanctions regime, including through financing or facilitating, for ISIL or ANF, of travel of foreign terrorist fighters;

 

“8.   Calls upon all Member States to take national measures to suppress the flow of foreign terrorist fighters to, and bring to justice, in accordance with applicable international law, foreign terrorist fighters of, ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida, reiterates further the obligation of Member States to prevent the movement of terrorists or terrorist groups, in accordance with applicable international law, by, inter alia, effective border controls, and, in this context, to exchange information expeditiously, improve cooperation among competent authorities to prevent the movement of terrorists and terrorist groups to and from their territories, the supply of weapons for terrorists and financing that would support terrorists;

 

“9.   Encourages all Member States to engage with those within their territories at risk of recruitment and violent radicalization to discourage travel to Syria and Iraq for the purposes of supporting or fighting for ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida;

 

“10.  Reaffirms its decision that States shall prevent the direct or indirect supply, sale, or transfer to ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida from their territories or by their nationals outside their territories, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of arms and related materiel of all types including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment, and spare parts for the aforementioned, and technical advice, assistance or training related to military activities, as well as its calls for States to find ways of intensifying and accelerating the exchange of operational information regarding traffic in arms, and to enhance coordination of efforts on national, subregional, regional and international levels;

 

Terrorist Financing

 

“11.  Reaffirms its resolution 1373 (2001) and in particular its decisions that all States shall prevent and suppress the financing of terrorist acts and refrain from providing any form of support, active or passive, to entities or persons involved in terrorist acts, including by suppressing recruitment of members of terrorist groups and eliminating the supply of weapons to terrorists;

 

“12.  Recalls its decision in resolution 2161 (2014) that all States shall ensure that no funds, financial assets or economic resources are made available, directly or indirectly for the benefit of ISIL, ANF or any other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida, by their nationals or by persons within their territory, and reaffirms its decision in resolution 1373 (2001) that all States shall prohibit their nationals or any persons and entities within their territories from making any funds, financial assets or economic resources or financial or other related services available, directly or indirectly, for the benefit of persons who commit or attempt to commit or facilitate or participate in the commission of terrorist acts, or for the benefit of entities owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such persons and of persons and entities acting on behalf of or at the direction of such persons;

 

“13.  Notes with concern that oilfields and related infrastructure controlled by ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida, are generating income which support their recruitment efforts and strengthen their operational capability to organize and carry out terrorist attacks;

 

“14.  Condemns any engagement in direct or indirect trade involving ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida, and reiterates that such engagement could constitute financial support for entities designated by the Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) (“the Committee”) and may lead to further listings by the Committee;

 

“15.  Emphasizes the importance of all Member States complying with their obligation to ensure that their nationals and persons within their territory do not make donations to individuals and entities designated by the Committee or those acting on behalf of or at the direction of designated entities;

 

“16.  Expresses its concern that aircraft or other transport departing from territory controlled by ISIL could be used to transfer gold or other valuable items and economic resources for sale on international markets, or to make other arrangements that could result in violations of the asset freeze;

 

“17.  Confirms that the requirements in paragraph 1 (a) of resolution 2161 (2014) shall also apply to the payment of ransoms to individuals, groups, undertakings or entities on the Al-Qaida Sanctions List, regardless of how or by whom the ransom is paid;

 

Sanctions

 

“18.  Observes that ISIL is a splinter group of Al-Qaida, recalls that ISIL and ANF are included on the Al-Qaida sanctions list and in this regard, expresses its readiness to consider listing individuals, groups, undertakings and entities providing support to ISIL or to ANF, including those who are financing, arming, planning or recruiting for ISIL or ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida through information and communications technologies including the internet and social media or through any other means;

 

“19.  Decides that the individuals specified in Annex I of this resolution shall be subject to the measures imposed in paragraph 1 of resolution 2161 (2014) and added to the Al-Qaida Sanctions List;

 

“20.  Directs the Committee to make accessible on the Committee’s website the narrative summaries of reasons for listing the individuals specified in Annex I of this resolution as agreed by the Council and confirms that the provisions of resolution 2161 (2014) and subsequent relevant resolutions shall apply to the names specified in Annex I for so long as they remain on the Al Qaida Sanctions List;

 

“21.  Encourages the submission of listing requests to the Committee by Member States of individuals and entities supporting ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida andfurther encourages the Committee to urgently consider additional designations of individuals and entities supporting ISIL and ANF;

 

Reporting

 

“22.  Directs the Monitoring Team to submit a report to the Committee within 90 days on the threat, including to the region, posed by ISIL and ANF, their sources of arms, funding, recruitment and demographics, and recommendations for additional action to address the threat and requests that, after a Committee discussion of this report, the chair of the Committee to brief the Security Council on its principal findings;

 

“23.  Requests UNAMI, within its mandate, capabilities, and its areas of operation, to assist the Committee and the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team established by resolution 1526 (2004), including by passing information relevant to the implementation of the measures in paragraph 1 of resolution 2161 (2014);

 

“24.  Decides to remain seized of this matter.

 

Annex

 

1.    Abdelrahman Mouhamad Zafir al Dabidi al Jahani

Abdelrahman Mouhamad Zafir al Dabidi al Jahani is associated with Al-Qaida or any cell, affiliate, splinter group or derivative thereof for “participating in the financing, planning, facilitating, preparing or perpetrating of acts or activities by, in conjunction with, under the name of, on behalf of, or in support of” and “recruiting for” Jabhet al-Nusra, an a.k.a. of Al-Nusrah Front for the People of the Levant (QE.A.137.14).

 

2.    Hajjaj Bin Fahd Al Ajmi

Hajjaj bin Fahd al Ajmi is associated with Al-Qaida or any cell, affiliate, splinter group or derivative thereof for “participating in the financing, planning, facilitating, preparing or perpetrating of acts or activities by, in conjunction with, under the name of, on behalf of, or in support of” Al-Nusrah Front for the People of the Levant (QE.A.137.14).

 

3.    Abou Mohamed al Adnani

Abou Mohamed al Adnani is associated with Al-Qaida or any cell, affiliate, splinter group or derivative thereof for “participating in the financing, planning, facilitating, preparing or perpetrating of acts or activities by, in conjunction with, under the name of, on behalf of, or in support of” Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), an a.k.a of Al-Qaida in Iraq (QE.J.115.04).

 

4.    Said Arif

“Said Arif is associated with Al-Qaida or any cell, affiliate, splinter group or derivative thereof for “participating in the financing, planning, facilitating, preparing, or perpetrating of acts or activities by, in conjunction with, under the name of, on behalf of or in support of” and “recruiting for” Jabhet al-Nusra, an a.k.a. of Al-Nusrah Front for the People of the Levant (QE.A.137.14).

 

5.    Abdul Mohsen Abdallah Ibrahim al Charekh

“Abdul Mohsen Abdallah Ibrahim al Charekh is associated with Al-Qaida or any cell, affiliate, splinter group or derivative thereof for “participating in the financing, planning, facilitating, preparing or perpetrating of acts or activities by, in conjunction with, under the name of, on behalf of, or in support of” Jabhet al-Nusra, listed as an a.k.a. of Al-Nusrah Front for the People of the Levant (QE.A.137.14).

 

6.    Hamid Hamad Hamid al-Ali

Hamid Hamad Hamid al-Ali is associated with Al-Qaida or any cell, affiliate, splinter group or derivative thereof for “participating in the financing, planning, facilitating, preparing or perpetrating of acts or activities by, in conjunction with, under the name of, on behalf of, or in support of” Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), an a.k.a. of Al-Qaida in Iraq (QE.J.115.04) and Jabhet al-Nusra, an a.k.a. of Al-Nusrah Front for the People of the Levant (QE.A.137.14).”

 

* *** *


Iraq et Syrie : le Conseil de sécurité inscrit six extrémistes sur sa liste de sanctions

Le Conseil de sécurité. Photo: ONU

 

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15 août 2014 – Le Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies a adopté vendredi à l'unanimité une résolution qui inscrit sur sa liste de sanctions visant Al-Qaïda six individus participant ou soutenant les opérations en Iraq et en Syrie de l'Etat islamique d'Iraq et du Levant (EIIL) et du Front el-Nosra.

Dans cette résolution, les membres du Conseil se disent très préoccupés par le fait qu'une partie du territoire de l'Iraq et de la Syrie est « sous le contrôle de l'État islamique d'Iraq et du Levant et du Front el-Nosra » et que leur présence, leur idéologie extrémiste violente et leurs agissements sont préjudiciables à la stabilité de ces deux pays et de la région.

Le Conseil fait observer que l'EIIL est un groupe dissident d'Al-Qaïda et rappelle que l'EIIL et le Front el-Nosra figurent sur la liste de sanctions visant Al-Qaïda. Il se déclare disposé à y inscrire les individus, groupes, entreprises ou entités qui apportent leur appui à l'un ou à l'autre.

Les six individus inscrits vendredi sur cette liste sont : Aldelrahman Mouhamad Zafir al Dabidi al Jabani, Hajjaj Bin Fahd Al Ajmi, Abou Mohamed al Adnani, Said Arif, Abdul Mohsen Abdallah Ibrahim al Charekh, et Hamid Hamad Hamid al-Ali.

Le Conseil prie instamment tous les Etats de coopérer aux efforts faits pour trouver et traduire en justice les individus, groupes, entreprises et entités associés à Al-Qaïda, y compris l'EIIL et le Front el-Nosra, « qui perpètrent, organisent et commanditent des actes terroristes. »

Le Conseil de sécurité demande aussi à tous les Etats membres de prendre des mesures nationales pour endiguer le flux de combattants terroristes étrangers qui rejoignent les rangs de l'EIIL et du Front el-Nosra.

Le Conseil de sécurité rappelle également, qu'en vertu d'une précédente résolution adoptée cette année, tous les Etats doivent prévenir et réprimer le financement des actes de terrorisme et doivent veiller à ce qu'aucuns fonds, autres avoirs financiers ou ressources économiques ne soient mis directement ou indirectement à la disposition de ces deux groupes extrémistes.

Dans leur résolution, les membres du Conseil constatent avec inquiétude que les gisements de pétrole et les infrastructures connexes contrôlés notamment par l'EIIL et le Front el-Nosra « génèrent des recettes qui permettent à ceux-ci de financer des recrutements et de renforcer leurs capacités opérationnelles en vue d'organiser et de perpétrer des attaques terroristes. » Ils condamnent tout échange commercial direct ou indirect avec ces deux groupes.

15/08/2014

Conseil des Droits de l'Homme - Session de septembre ( 8-26 )

Le programme de la prochaine session du Conseil des Droits de l'Homme risque d'être bouleversé par l'actualité des violations récentes ou en cours des Droits de l'Homme et du droit international humanitaire, que ce soit à Gaza, en Syrie et en Irak, où les attaques contre les populations civiles ont pris des  accents de crimes de guerre, crimes contre l'humanité voire de génocide. 

Quelle sera la réaction des Etats Membres, de l'ONU, des ONG ?

Quand on sait qu'un groupe d'Etats s'est opposé à une convocation d'urgence en août d'une session spéciale sur les persécutions religieuses en Irak, on devine que les débats seront vifs à cette session de septembre, qui verra la participation du nouveau Haut-Commissaire aux Droits de l'Homme, un excellent diplomate jordanien, qui présentera un rapport très attendu à l'ouverture de la session le lundi 8 septembre.

Le dialogue interactif sur la Syrie est prévu le mardi 16 septembre.

La tendance au rapprochement entre Droits de l'Homme et droit international humanitaire se confirme encore avec la discussion, prévue lundi 22 septembre, de l'utilisation des drones dans des opérations militaire.

Et tout ce programme pourrait être bouleversé par l'actualité internationale et par une autre tendance, de vouloir traiter à Genève, au Conseil des Droits de l'Homme, de questions qui ne pourraient pas être abordées au Conseil de sécurité...

Michel Veuthey

05/08/2014

Droits de l'homme et raison commune

 

 

rapprochement.jpg

Vendredi dernier nous avons clôturé le premier cours d’été sur le Rapprochement de cultures que nous avons organisé avec les Chaires UNESCO de Bergamo, Istanbul, La Rioja et Téhéran. Le thème de  cette année était les droits de l’homme et la raison commune.

A sa 67ème session, l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies a proclamé la Décennie internationale du rapprochement des cultures (2013- 2022). Le but est susciter un large mouvement en faveur d’un dialogue interculturel respectueux de la diversité culturelle et des droits de l’homme, dans un climat de confiance et de compréhension mutuelles.

 Le but principal du système des Nations Unies est de « préserver les générations futures du fléau de la guerre » et de « favoriser le progrès social et [d’] instaurer de meilleures conditions de vie dans une liberté plus grande ». Ces idéaux humanistes formulés il y a plusieurs décennies demeurent incontestablement aujourd’hui le plus pertinent des repères pour orienter l’action à mener, dans un monde d’interdépendances complexes.

Un Plan d’action pour la Décennie est proposé afin d’atteindre ces objectifs. Il est axé sur quatre grandes thématiques notamment:

(i) promouvoir une compréhension et une connaissance mutuelles de la diversité culturelle, ethnique, linguistique et religieuse et

(ii) construire un cadre pluraliste de valeurs communes.

Dans le cadre de la Décennie mondiale, nous nous proposons de réfléchir sur les fondements philosophiques des droits de l’homme, prolongeant ainsi la recherche faite par l’UNESCO en 1985 sur ce thème : Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights, P. Ricoeur (ed.) Paris, Unesco, 1985. La finalité de ces universités est d’explorer la possibilité d’utiliser les droits de l’homme comme partie intégrante d’une «raison commune» aux cultures, qui permette la construction d’un monde commun et d’une citoyenneté globale. Ce dernier concept fait partie du programme lancé par le Secrétaire général : l’Education avant tout.

Le programme se déroulera sur trois ans de 2014 à 2016 et prendra comme thématiques celles de l’article premier de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme. Les  thèmes des années à venir sont : Liberté et égalité en dignité et droits (2015)  et Esprit de fraternité et famille humaine (2016).

Alfred Fernandez